Blu Ray: What is it and how different from DVD format and DVD quality?

Good afternoon, dear readers of my blog! If we are already familiar with you, then you know that I am a person sociable and responsive, I have a lot of friends, relatives and friends with whom I often spend time and help them in choosing technology. Usually in everyday life, my knowledge is required spontaneously.

For example, not so long ago I met a classmate, with whom I have not seen for several years. He invited me to his dacha, where his parents live. In the process of pleasant tea drinking, the elderly remembered that they have a drive somewhere with the record of our school concert. I was glad to posstalgify about the past youth, but it did not work - the device was either modified, or illuminated, the video could not be reproduced. As it turned out, none of those present knew about Blu Ray - what it is now I will tell you more about, but it was this format that could help protect valuable memories.

What it is and with what it eats it

The appearance of DVD discs marked a new era in the field of digital technologies. Compact reliable round media came to replace the VHS film cassettes. And the consumer immediately notified that the format war was completed. But it was not there, there was no progress in place and now we offer a new high-tech device.

Structure of a two-layer disk

So, what is Blu Ray. Speaking by a simple philistine is an optical medium, the information on which is written through the blue (blue-purple) beam, in contrast to infrared in the case of DVD.

The name happened from the English-speaking phrase of Blue Ray - Blue / Blue Ray. But since this phrase is often used in everyday life, it could not be patented and turned into a brand as something unreasonable. To have copyrights to this development, the inventors of the new format took the last letter from the word "Blue" by creating a new trademark "Blue Ray disk".

The first prototypes of such a carrier appeared relatively recently, at the end of the last century - more precisely, in October 2000, and a little more than 10 years ago came to the market at all 10 years ago, in 2006, making it a competition of HD DVD format.

Some scientific statistics

The easiest way to clarify the inhabitant what is the format of the bills on the example of comparison with DVDs.

  • The first thing that comes to mind is Blu Ray more spacious. If a single-layer DVD recorded by the red beam can store about 5 GB in its memory, then Blue Rei with the same diameter - five times more.
  • And the other format comes out in one size - 120 mm. But the use of a shorter blue beam helps to compress the path of the track from 0.74 μm to 0.32 μm, in more information on the same area.
  • With the same thickness of the DVD and Blu RA, the protective layer in the latter thinner is 0.5 mm.
  • Blueway has a hard coating "Durabis", there is no DVD. This protective layer protects the surface of the disks from scratches, making them insensitive even to dry paper napkins, while these can permanently damage the media of the DVD format.
  • Blu Ray Format is capable of transmitting data (for example, text files, photos) at a speed of up to 36 megabits per second, while DVD cannot exceed the limit of traffic at 11 Mbps. What to talk about video and audio downloaded on Blue Ray disk at 54 Mbps.
  • Consumers asking what Blu Ray quality is not particularly deliberate and think that this is just a disk with greater memory. This would not be any major discovery if the advantage was only in the capacity. In fact, Blue Ray is a fundamentally new video quality. No wonder Many Hollywood film companies - an example filed Worner Bros. - refused other formats and release their films exclusively on Blu Ray. You do not need to be a professional to understand that the resolution of 1920x1080 and bitrate is the degree of compression of the stream, 40 Mbps is much more functional than 720/480 and 9.8 Mbps, respectively. The last indicator is especially important, as the higher the bitrate, the better the picture.

raznica-kartinki-DVD-i-BluRay

Naturally, I did not present all this information in detail. Neither my classmate or, especially, his parents. I can't even understand the format in all the subtleties of the format, a person, every day communicating with the technique. Here is a professional narrower profile and high level. Simple consumers - in the best sense of the word, it is necessary to understand only two things: Blue Rey is a high quality video and a more voluminous data warehouse than classic DVDs.

Mvideo-vse-skidki-na-techniku

Competition with HD DVD

I hope I accessible explained to you what Blu Ray is and what is different from this format from the carriers of the previous generation, for which the red and infrared (CD) rays are used. However, HD DVD discs for quite a long time to compete, even the Warner Brothers moved to Blurey only in 2008 and then in part in order to stop the war of formats.

What is the similarity and differences between these types of media?

Similar

 

Difference

To record information on Blue Rey and HD DVDs use the same short blue rays with a long 450 nm.

Capacity Blu Ray format is 1.5 times more.

Standard disk diameter - 120 millimeters.

Unlike HD DVD, Blue Ray is incompatible with DVD. Thus, it can be said that HD DVD is a buffer between old and fundamentally new digital technologies.

Both formats are single-layer and two-layer.

The HD DVD format is made on the basis of old optical media, therefore does not have a protective coating "Durabis".

Both formats use the same ways to compress MPEG-2 information, VIDEO CODEC 1 and H.264.

Blue Rey Technologies are constantly in development and now Pioneer produces 3 and 4 layer discs. Also, the same developer has presented 16 and 20 layer carriers of 400 and 500 GB for another 9 years ago, but for now there is no such format.

In principle, both formats are capable of providing high quality of sound and video playback. But personally, I would noted for a longer service life of Beduray carriers - at least because of the rigid protective coating. The advantage of HD DVD is that it does not require the invention of new types of players for playback - due to the same "duals" for this format, old DVD players can be converted. True, this technique is not under the power of the 4K digital cinema, which has already been rated by Hollywood film studios.

Eldorado-samie-vigodnie-predlojeniya

What to reproduce?

The benefits of the Blu Ray format are obvious to professionals, but not for each alignment. The fact is that a fundamentally new BD-LIVE technology (Blu-ray Disc - Live), invented to extend the media functional, requires a completely new view of the player to play.

So, that's the same Blue Rei player. Briefly speaking, this is a device for reading the corresponding type of media capable of providing additional options.

Such players are three species:

  1. With the PROFILE0 Specification - to read Blue Ray discs with standard interactive features. bluray-pleer-pioneer-BDP-51FD
  2. ProFile1 specification players are the most popular today, for the first time reached the market in 2007. Equipped with the "Picture in Picture" option and the ability to reproduce audio tracks on BonusView disks.
  3. Profile0 players created specifically for media with BD-LIVE function. Have the ability to enter the Internet and direct download to the media from the site.

I want to tell more about the latest models. The players with the BD-LIVE function can be connected to the Internet without the clearinghouse of the computer or laptop. The players can be connected to the worldwide web both through the cord and using Wi-Fi.

To download or view movies online, in the drive it is necessary to insert a carrier of a compatible format. After that, you can use the joint viewing option through the social network or download official versions of trailers, rollers and clips through a film studio sites.

On Blue Ray Player Version 1.1 You can play DVD R / RW, CD R / RW, BD-R / RE and Some Others. But the 2.0 specification players may not read these discs, so check this option before purchasing.

bluray-pleer-lg

Modern technologies allow you to change the player firmware, making it compatible with many formats. But such changes should be an experienced professional, otherwise there is a risk that the player will lose some of its functions.

In conclusion, I will say that the player with the BD-Live function is required not to each consumer. For example, I am quite pleased with the PROFILE 1.0 version. Expect soon more articles on this topic, to the soon!

Thank you for attention! Sincerely, Rostislav Kuzmin.

Good day.

Do not still know what Blue Ray is in practice. In the meantime, the whole world adheres to this standard in the production of films and players. To visit the guests of my blog, I decided to write this article, where I will tell the story of the appearance of the format, about its technologies, features of recording such disks, their tanks, etc.

Что такое blue ray?

Designation and appearance

Immediately give a short decoding to enter you into the case.

Blue-ray is an optical disc standard that allows you to record digital data with high density. This means that on such a disc can be kept much more information than on other existing ones.

Name

From the English language, the name of the format is translated as "blue beam". This is no accident, because with the help of laser radiation, this color is written and data disks are written.

And at least "blue" in English is written as "Blue", the last letter was specifically omitted in the name of the standard. The fact is that the phrase "blue beam", as it is, is often used, so it cannot be used as a trademark.

Thus, the correct and complete name of the standard is Blu-Ray Disk (COP. BD).

Blu-Ray Disk

Short story

The format was invented by the international Consortium Blu-Ray Disk Association (BDA). In 2000, the developers released the first prototype of the disk, but its modern version appeared only in 2006.

This standard had a strong competitor - HD DVD. Advanced film studios produced products only in it. But Blue Ray pushed him out from the playing field. The latter surrendered to Warner Brothers in 2008.

Since the HD-format drives still remained in everyday life, the players manufacturers are combined in their goods blue and red lasers.

Проигрыватель дисков

Features of production

What is Blue Ray, or what is this blue ray that has made a revolution in the world of the disk industry? It radiates blue, and in fact purple, laser, which has a wavelength of 405 nm. For comparison: DVD and CD read and write drives with infrared or simply with a red laser, the waves of which are 780 nm and 650 nm.

What short waves are better than long? The first made the record track narrow, so that there was more data on the disk of the same dimensions. At the same time, the speed of reading has increased, which is now 432 Mbps.

Сравнение качество видео DVD и BR

Coating

In the production of the first BD in front of manufacturers, snag arose: as the information is very close to the surface, the slightest scratch can damage it. Therefore, the discs were placed in bulky plastic cartridges. Such a deficiency did not fully lead in comparison with HD DVDs that did not need boxes and cost cheaper.

However, in 2004, the decision was found by the Japanese TDK corporation. The new format discs received effective protection against scratches and pollution in the form of a polymer coating called "Durabis", which can be wiped with a wet cloth.

Защитное покрытие

Volume

From the above you already know that a large amount of Blu-ray disks are their main advantage. What sizes are we talking about? It depends on the number of layers. Single-layer accommodates 25 GB of memory. The same quantity is added with each layer.

There are even 500 GB BD. But the most popular in mind their availability is BD-R (disposable entry), BD-RE (reusable), and with the "RE DL" console, which also means multiple overwriting, with a capacity of up to 50 GB.

BD-R

Technology

Blu-ray suggests various technologies that increase the functionality of the disks:

  • BD LiveLive. Belongs to the Japanese company Sony. Opens the doors to interactive games, competition and other services over the Internet. After activating this feature, you can download additional materials to the film, for example, interviews with the main characters or director. You can download them on a special web page dedicated to the film.
  • LTH TYPE (LOW TO HIGH - type "bottom up"). The technology is invented for simplification and, accordingly, reducing the cost of recording the freezers, which is performed on the equipment for DVD-R. It is easy to guess that, together with the price, the quality of reading and writing falls.

LTH и HTL

  • IH-BD. These are two-layer drives in which ROM and RE stands are combined.

This means that one layer of 25 GB serves for a disposable recording. And the second of the same volume is exclusively for reading.

  • 3D. I think everyone knows what it means. These discs can be played on conventional 2D devices, but, accordingly, without special effects.

Blu-ray 3D

Copy protection

Another Blu-ray chip consists in smart confrontation with piracy. In these disks, a BD + protective element is used, a dynamically changing encryption scheme. What does it mean?

When hacking this scheme, developers update it and all the drives released after this will be protected by another cipher. Consequently, one blow is impossible to harm the entire specification on an ongoing basis.

In addition, the American company Hewlett-Packard has developed Mandatory Managed Copy technology, which is mandatory with respect to HD and Blu-Ray. It allows you to legally copy the contents of the disks in the protected form.

Also Blue Ray suggests digital watermarks "ROM-MARK". This technology is sewn into the drives. Thanks to which they cannot play drives without such a watermark.

And finally, the equipment is sharpened under BD can produce a high-quality picture and sound only through the interface protected using cipher or an unprotected analog interface.

Защита BD

That's all I wanted to tell you what Blue Ray is.

Come to my site still to learn more interesting.

See you later.

The era of CDs gradually goes into oblivion and becomes history. Blu-ray discs were the latest technological breakthroughs of past years. What it is and how it works will disassemble in this article.

A bit of history

The technology is based on the use of a new type of laser reading. It is blue, from where the name of Blu-ray appeared, in the translation - "blue beam". This new laser is capable not only to read, but also write data to more dense layers, which allows you to accommodate more information on the same area.

blu ray плеер

Officially, Blu-ray technology was presented in 2002. But not all companies decided to join the new standard. For example, Toshiba and NEC declared the creation of their own format - HD DVD.

Over time, both technologies developed in parallel. However, at the end, Blu-ray won.

Blu-ray characteristics

A single-layer disc can accommodate up to 25 GB, two-layer - up to 50 GB, three-layer - up to 100 GB and four-layer - up to 128 GB. In 2008, Pioneer held an announcement of 20-layer discs, which can accommodate up to 500 GB of information.

In everyday life, the discs of the BD-R standard are used, BD-RE with one-time and multi-sized overwriting.

Covering disc

Probably, many know that the Blu-Ray carrier layer with data is very close to the edge. This fact strongly influenced the durability of the discs, as any scratch and crack could bring it out. In 2004, a new polymer coating appeared, which could reliably protect the data on the blue-ray discs.

Technologies and standards

In the course of the development of Blu-Ray, many standards and related technologies changed. There was a replacement for old standards of reading and writing to new ones.

BD-Live.

This technology has developed Sony. With its help in Blu-ray, an interactive was brought. Now it has become possible to access a specific content - for example, additional materials for the film or games. To do this, it was necessary to go to a specific page on the Internet.

LTH-Type.

This approach has made it possible to simplify and reduce the cost of producing Blu-Ray disks. The essence is to use the same materials as when creating conventional CDs. However, it is worth considering that not all the blue-ray players can reproduce them correctly. But the creators decided and this problem is just enough to update the firmware of their device.

Despite the fact that this type of discs has significantly simplified and has reduced the technology, still some disadvantages remained - the recording speed has decreased slightly.

BD DL

One of the important stages of the development of Blu-Ray. The technology allowed to increase the amount of space accessible to 50 GB.

BDXL.

The use of 3- and 4-x xlay disks allowed to increase the volume up to 128 GB. It is worth saying that the usual Blue-Rey-Rey-Players of the BD Standard cannot read BDXL, while reverse compatibility is.

3D Blu-ray

With the arrival of the 3D technology, it was necessary to somehow organize this approach against Blu-ray. So the Blu-ray 3D standard appeared, which has reverse compatibility. In the root of technology there is a method of compression of both video edits for each eye, which allows you to effectively use the disk space without loss of quality.

Programs for Blu-ray

There is a large amount of software to play Blue-Rey Standard. They can be viewed without the physical presence of a Blu-ray player, for example, on a computer with Windows.

Cyberlink PowerDVD 12.

This program connects the DVD and Blu-ray player, music player, a multimedia library storage tool. Available in several different versions depending on the possibilities. It has functional, but with a simple and understandable interface. Able to reproduce data from computer hard drives or directly from media. Slightly demanding to system resources.

blu ray перевод

Corel WinDVD Pro 11

Pretty popular program to view video in different formats. It has the ability to reproduce Blue-Rey 3D, DVD and many other formats today. The program is able to convert a two-dimensional image into three-dimensional. It is not the most understandable and convenient interface to which you need to get used to. When buying a box version of the program, the user will enable 3D glasses as a reward.

TotalMedia Theater 5.

Like other programs can reproduce a wide range of various video and audio formats. Including Blue-Rey with 3D support. Able to convert two-dimensional video and pictures in 3D. The program uses SIMHD technology, which is able to improve the quality of the video played by the noise absorption.

KMPlayer.

Not bad omnivorous multimedia player. It is capable of playing a large list of formats. Reads DVD and Blue Rey. The graphical interface and especially the settings are slightly confused, so for normal operation you need to get used to control.

Hardware players

An article about what is Blu-ray, would be incomplete if there were not devices that are able to reproduce disks Blue-ray directly. Here is a small review.

SAMSUNG BD-J5500

A simple and affordable player to play Blu-ray discs. It has access to the Internet through smart TV, has a large spectrum of the supported formats Blue-Rey, is able to read other multimedia files.

The outputs use the HDMI port, as well as a separate coaxial for audio. There are also USB and Ethernet ports.

диски блю рей

According to users in their feedback, the device is very compact, without any problems reproduces all the stated formats, has excellent quality.

From negative responses, you can select the absence of any indication on the device housing. However, someone liked it on the contrary, because nothing shines in the eye and does not distract from viewing.

LG BP450.

Bright representative of the budget segment of Blue-Rey players. The output resolution may vary from 720 to 1080. The HDTV technology is applied as scaling. There is internet access via smart TV. The device supports all the well-known Blue Ray Formats. You can control the player using HDMI.

формат blu ray

Judging by the reviews that users left, the apparatus is a good price / quality ratio.

Sony BDP-S5500

Inexpensive option from the famous brand. The screen resolution is supported to 1080, there is access to the Internet. All known Blu-ray formats can be reproduced on this device. In addition to standard USB and Ethernet ports, Wi-Fi can be used.

Users met the gadget well and noted that at a low price, the quality is at the height. In particular, many liked the convenient control panel, the automatic system of noise cancellation, clean sound, support all known video and audio formats.

Panasonic DMP-BDT460

The price of this device can reach up to 10 thousand rubles. But the filling of the device is a little better than the analogs above.

In particular, the player is able to play video in 4K format. It has access to the Internet through smart TV. In addition, it makes it possible to read data from external drives. To connect there are two HDMI outputs and one to transmit audio channels.

To connect external devices, there are USB, Ethernet ports, as well as the built-in Wi-Fi module.

Users in their reviews rated this device. They noted high playback quality, 3D support, smooth image in dynamic scenes. However, those who marked a little noisy drive were also found, the inability to lose some formats from the external carrier and rare "peetering" during operation.

Pioneer BDP-LX88

One of the leaders of the manufacturers of many players has introduced many different functions and technologies in this model.

Starting with high playback resolution - 4k. Inside there are many built-in decoders capable of working with the most different sound formats and video. Therefore, the list of supported files and standards is simply huge - manufacturers took care of their potential viewers.

blu ray носитель

Two HDMI are present from the outputs, two stereo-type audio outputs, one audio optical and one audio acceleration. To read from flash drives there are two USB ports, to connect the Internet via cable - Ethernet. DLNA support will allow you to reproduce media files remotely from other devices.

Assessment of users, mostly positive. The perfect video and sound playback quality is noted. There are no accumulations and hangs. However, the price for some may seem high, and not surprisingly - the cost of the device begins from 55 thousand rubles.

T + A K8

The cost of this model is slightly less than a million rubles - 833,000. This is due to the fact that the device is simply stuffed with the most modern technologies and plus it acts as a receiver, and not just a player.

Scaling the image occurs with HDTV. Naturally, the device has support for smart TV. Permission can reach up to 1080 points. The player is "omnivore", that is, it is able to read all the well-known media formats and disc standards.

программа для blu ray

HDMI is used as an output, type 7.1 audio output, coaxial audio output and headphone jack. There is also an audio input. Two USB ports will allow you to connect external media and reproduce data from them. The DLNA feature will help reproduce data from other devices without the use of wires.

As additional features, you can note the presence of FM radio.

As for feedback, they are quite small, apparently, as well as the owners of this model. But those rare, which is available on the network, mark the excellent execution of the case and nodes of the device. All elements are made of high-quality plastic, the control is intuitive and functional. The sound quality and displayed video is excellent. When playing and operating the device of any "brakes" and the rollers is not observed. True, many confuse a really high price.

Conclusion

The article was described in detail Blu-ray technology: what it is, how it works and what players exist. Despite the fact that at one time she was progressive and breakthrough, now, with the coming to the market of various storage devices of a large volume, interest in Blue-Rey fade.

блю рей проигрыватели

Perhaps enthusiasts and collectors in the future will remember the Blu-Ray and what it is, however, people of the new generation are most likely to immediately in the era of solid carriers and drives.

What is HD DVD?

HD DVD (High Definition Digital Universal Disk) is a new format that can store large amounts of information and reproduce high-quality images and video. Thanks to the use of advanced technology, HD DVD consists of a denser layer and read by a more subtle laser than regular DVDs, which allows you to store five times more data than standard DVD - 15 GB on a single-layer disk / 30 GB on a two-layer.

Why is HD DVD better than standard DVD?

The high definition image (HD) is brighter, incredibly clear, and looks very realistic. This stunning level of detail cannot be reproduced on a standard digital video system, which has permissible capacity of 480p (or 480 lines). HD DVD can store the amount of data required for high-quality video in 720p resolving (720 lines) / 1080i (1080 interlaced lines), which allows you to watch video programs with greater brightness and higher quality than ever before. You buy a movie on a DVD, you usually receive not only movies, as well as additional features, for example, the comment of the director, actors or documentary operators (depending on the disk, of course). On HD DVD there is an opportunity for previously unrealized special features: Imagine, for example, an interactive content - when the director explains the shooting scene on the screen, while the movie continues to go background. Thanks to the advanced high-quality and additional sound and video capabilities, HD DVD is a huge step forward in DVD format technologies.

What is Blu Ray?

Blu Ray is a new format that can store large amounts of information and reproduce high-quality images and video. Thanks to the use of advanced technology, Blue Ray consists of a more dense layer and read by a more subtle laser than regular DVDs, which allows you to store five times more data than the standard DVD - 25 GB on a single-layer disk / 50 GB on a two-layer.

What is the difference between HD-DVD and Blu Ray?

Despite the fact that Blu-ray and HD DVD are high-definition formats based on blue laser technology, there are several important differences between them. The first is the size. Blu-ray Player uses a laser with a shorter wavelength than HD DVD. Therefore, more data is placed on the surface of the surface. As a consequence, a single-layer disk may contain 25 GB of data (HD DVD - 15GB), two-layer - 50GB (HD DVD - 30GB) second difference - content. Some large studios stated that they would support only one format of carriers. For example, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (including MGM and Tri-Star), Twntieth Century Fox and Disney will release films only on Blu-Ray, when as Warner Bros., Universal Pictures, and HBO - Only on HD DVD, Paramount Announced the release of films in both formats. Although the formats are incompatible with each other, they are combined with high quality video and sound track, new additions to films, intuitive and more interactive disk management, compared with standard DVD.

HD DVD.

The HD format attracts those buyers who need an increased level of detailing and quality of films, games and other digital multimedia materials. The increased number of rows of sweep, increased resolution of video materials and excellent sound quality - the qualities with which high definition materials differ from materials in standard format. Here are some of the distinguishing characteristics in the HD standard:

  • Compared with 525 scan strings in the image
  • with standard resolution, frame image
  • High definition contains from 720 to 1,080 lines
  • Scan.
  • Support for improved video formats,
  • including MPEG-2 SD / HD, H.264, VC-1.
  • Support for formats providing high
  • sound quality, including PCM (Pulse Code
  • Modulation, impulse-code modulation),
  • Dolby Truehd (MLP), Dolby Digital +, DTS HD.

As a result, viewing materials in HD format produces an exciting impression. The image seems to go beyond the screen and looks surprisingly alive. Until recently, films and other materials in HD format were not available to customers. The reason for this is simple: to store images with increased detail requires a volume exceeding the possibility of a regular DVD. HD DVD format belongs to the number of new generation DVD standards; This type of media is designed to increase the volume of stored data, which allows you to store a full movie in HD format together with special HD features on one HD DVD disk.

Capacity: DVD compared to HD DVD

The capacity of the standard single-layer DVD disk is only 4.7 GB or up to 2 hours of the usual movie. A two-layer DVD with storage capacity up to 8.5 GB provides reproduction of ordinary films to 4 hours (240 minutes) without changing the disk. Compared to these values, the disk capacity in HD DVD format is much larger. The HD DVD disk can be up to three layers. The 15 GB of materials in the format with high definition is placed on each layer, which gives the maximum capacity up to 45 GB. On the same three-layer disk HD DVD can be stored until 12 hours of writing in HD format. For movie lovers in HD format, this means that the disk remains for special HD functions. The HD DVD features are particularly interested in support for IHD - interactive HD format. One example of interactivity provided by this feature can serve as an overlay video recording on a reproducible film. In ordinary DVDs often include the comments of the director, actors, producer and other technical specialists. On the HD DVD disk, you can play video compartment, which allows the viewer to obtain complete information about the film creation process. Obviously, the HD DVD disk is an excellent medium for high definition materials.

How the HD DVD disk is arranged

In general terms, the HD DVD disk is also arranged as a DVD and consists of two connected circulating samples with a diameter of 120 mm and a thickness of 0.6 mm. As in the DVD technology, the information on the HD DVD disk is stored as a sequence of microscopic recesses located on a long-spiral disk. Data is written on a layer, discharged by 0.6 mm from the surface. This means that for the manufacture of HD DVDs, you can use the methods that are now applied in DVD technology. Consequently, HD DVDs are compatible with DVDs, which means that the HD DVD drive allows you to read and DVDs. So what differ HD DVD discs from DVDs? The answer is simple. Unlike the DVD technology, which uses red lasers, in HD DVD technology uses blue lasers, which allows to increase the storage capacity. Due to the smaller wavelength of the blue laser (405 nm instead of 650 nm in DVD), its application allows you to store more information on the HD DVD disk. The decrease in wavelength is important because it decreases the diffraction, which provides more accurate focus on the read-write surface. The difference is the same as between the letter using a thick marker and the ballpoint handles. Here, HD DVD technology is a subtle, accurate and clear letter with a ballpoint handle. As a result, the technology using a blue laser allows you to record and store more data on the disk of the same diameter than on the usual DVD disk.

How does HD DVD format develop?

Currently, there are HD DVD ROM disc players, which allows lovers to view and reproduce materials in HD format. For players and movie lovers, this is a good news. The next step is to introduce the ability to record disks in HD DVD format. This innovation will allow users to record materials on discs. For those who want to create their own materials in HD format, personal collections of such materials or simply use an increase in storage capacity to create backups, these future developments will become a serious breakthrough. Since the distribution of TV shows in HDTV format and records in HD format on broadband connections continues to gain popularity, access to the HD materials to record and playback will expand. Users will be able to form their HD entertainment tools. Microsoft stopped supporting HD DVD, reports TechPowerUp. Representatives of the corporation reported that HD DVD drives for the Xbox 360 gaming console are removed from production. Toshiba stated that after revising the overall financial strategy, the management took the final decision on the termination of the production of players and recording devices of the HD DVD format. "We had no chance to win this fight. If we continued to persist, it would have affected our consumers, "said Toshiba President Atzutoshi Nishida. But Universal Pictures Film Company, one of the few film studios supported by HD DVD, almost immediately after Toshiba's official message, also informed about the decision to stop the release of HD DVD and transition to Blu-Ray. Most likely, the example of Universal Pictures will follow and Paramount. As for the studios such as Walt Disney, Sony Pictures, Twentieth Century Fox and Mgm, they initially supported only Blu-ray format.

Blu-ray.

Variations and sizes

The Blu-ray single-layer disc (BD) can store 23.3, 25, or 27 GB - this volume is enough to write approximately four hours of high-definition video with sound. A two-layer disk can accommodate 46.6, 50, or 54 GB - enough to write for approximately eight hours of HD video. Also in the development there are disks with a capacity of 100 GB and 200 GB using a four and eight layers, respectively. The TDK corporation has already announced the prototype of a four-layer disk with a volume of 100 GB. [2] [3] The BD-RE standard will be available on a par with BD-R (written) and BD-ROM formats. Almost all manufacturers of optical media declared their readiness to release rewritable and recorded discs at the same time as the output of the BD-ROM format to the market. In addition to standard disks of 12 cm, disk variants of 8 cm sizes for use in digital photo and video cameras, It is planned that their volume will be 15 GB for a two-layer option.

Technical details

Laser and optics

The Blu-ray technology is used to read and write a blue-purple laser with a wavelength of 405 nm. Conventional DVDs and CDs use a red and infrared lasers with a wavelength of 650 nm and 780 nm, respectively. So the reduction made it possible to narrow the track by half compared to the usual DVD disk - up to 0.32 microns - and increase data recording density. More short wavelength blue - Poly Laser allows you to store more information by 12 cm discs of the same size as CD / DVD.

Эффективный размер пятна Blu-RayComparison of the effective "spot size".

The effective "spot size" on which the laser can focus is limited to diffraction and depends on the light wavelength and the lens numeric aperture used to focus it. Reducing the wavelength, the use of a larger numerical aperture (0.85, compared with 0.6 for a DVD), a high-quality two-liter system, as well as a decrease in the thickness of the protective layer six times (0.1 mm instead of 0.6 mm) provided the possibility of carrying A better and correct flow of read / write operations. This made it possible to record information into smaller points on the disk, and therefore store more information in the physical area of ​​the disk, as well as increase the read speed of up to 36 Mbps. In addition to optical improvements, Blu-ray discs also have improved data coding technology that allows you to store a larger information.

Technology solid coating

Due to the fact that on Blu-ray disks, the data is too close to the surface, the first versions of the discs were extremely sensitive to scratches and other external mechanical impacts because of which they were enclosed in plastic cartridges. This disadvantage aroused great doubts about whether Blu-ray format is to resist HD DVD standard - its main competitor. HD DVD in addition to its lower cost can normally exist without cartridges, as well as CD and DVD formats, which makes it more understandable for buyers, as well as more interesting for manufacturers and distributors that can be concerned about additional costs due to cartridges.

Структура двухслойного дискаThe structure of the Blu-Ray disk.

The solution to this problem appeared in January 2004, with the advent of a new polymer coating, which gave discs with incredible protection against scratches and dust. This coating developed by TDK has been called "Durabis", it allows you to clean the BD using paper napkins - which can cause CD and DVD damage. The HD DVD format has the same drawbacks, since these discs are made on the basis of old optical media. According to the press "Naked" BD with this coating, they keep the performance even by scratched scratching. [6]

Codecs

The codec is used to convert video and audio stream and determines the size that the video will occupy on the disk. In some or almost all video engines that will appear at the beginning, the MPEG-2.D codec will be used to the BD-ROM format specification includes support for three codecs: MPEG-2, which is also standard for DVD; MPEG-4 H.264 / AVC codec and VC-1 - a new rapidly developing codec created based on Microsoft Windows Media 9. When using the first codec, one layer may write about two hours of high-definition video, other two more modern Codec allows you to record up to four hours of video on one layer. The BD-ROM sound supports linear (uncompressed) PCM, Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, DTS, DTS-HD and Dolby Lossless (Data Compression Format Also known as Meridian Lossless Packing (MLP).

Compatibility

Although the Blu-Ray Disk Association does not oblige players manufacturers, it strongly recommends them to make Blu-ray devices to play DVD format discs to ensure backward compatibility. Morely, JVC has developed a three-layer technology that allows one disk as a physical area for DVD and for BD, thus obtaining a combined BD / DVD disk. The prototypes of the discs were shown at the international exhibition of consumer electronics - Consumer Electronics Show (CES) which was held in January 2006. If it is possible to introduce into commercial use, it is possible that buyers will have the opportunity to buy a disk that can be played as in modern DVD Players and in future BD players receiving a picture of different quality.

Region codes

Blu-ray video films will have different regions' codes other than DVD. According to the latest press messages [7] they will be as follows: code --- region1 or A North America, South America, Japan and East Asia (excluding China) 2 or B Europe (with the exception of Russia) and Africa3 or India, China, Russia , and all other countries.

Copyright protection systems

In Blu-ray format, an experimental defense element called BD +, which allows you to dynamically change the encryption scheme. It is worth the encryption to be broken manufacturers can update the encryption scheme, and all subsequent copies will be protected by a new scheme. Thus, a single hacking cipher will not compromise the entire specification for the entire period of its life. Mandatory Managed Copy technology will also be used which allows users to make legal copies of video information in a secure format, this technology has been developed by HP and requested its inclusion in the format. [8] It is the lack of ability to dynamically change the encryption scheme made it possible to create a Decss program that has become a real curse of the film industry: as soon as the Content-Scrambling System (CSS) was hacked, all subsequent DVDs were already wagoned without any problems. The next level of protection that discs have wheels - This is a technology of digital watermarks called ROM-MARK. This technology will be hardly stitching into the ROM drives in production, which will not allow the player to lose without a special hidden label, which, according to the Association, it will be impossible to fake. So, by hard regulation and licensing of the factories will be selected by the disk manufacturers, which will be delivered special equipment. In addition to this, all Blu-ray players will be able to produce a full video signal only through the interface protected by encryption. This means that most of the first HDTV TVs that were sold without HDCP support (HDMI or DVI support with HDCP support) will not be able to play high-definition video from Blu-Ray disks.

FAQ.

- What is Blu-ray?

Blu-ray is known as Blu-Ray Disc with BD abbreviation - optical disc of the new generation. This format was designed to write, overwrite and play high resolution video (HD), which itself takes a lot of data on the disk. Blu-Ray exceeds the usual DVD5 more than 5 times over the storage density and can store more than 25 GB on a single-layer disk and 50 GB on a two-layer for films in Blu Ray format.

- Why exactly Blu-ray?

The Blu-ray name was taken from the technologies that are based on a blue-violet laser to record and read data. The format name is the result of the word combination of Blue (Blue, Blue-Violet Laser) and Ray (Ray, Optical Ray). Blu-Ray Disc Association calls not to pay attention to the missing letter "E" in the format name, as it was one of the conditions to register Blu-ray as a trademark. Correct abbreviations and writing the name of the format: Blu-ray Disc, but Not Blu-rayu diskblu-ray, but not Blu-Raybd, but not Br or BRD.

- Who developed Blu-ray?

Blu-ray format was developed by Blu-Ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of leaders in the field of consumer electronics, personal computers and multimedia production, which has more than 180 representative companies worldwide. Today the Board of Directors has representation in the following companies: Apple Computer, Inc.Dell Inc.Hewlett Packard CompanyHitachi, Ltd.LG Electronics Inc.Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Mitsubishi Electric CorporationPioneer CorporationRoyal Philips ElectronicsSamsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Sharp CorporationSony CorporationSun Microsystems, Inc.Tdk CorporationThomson Multimediat Wentieth Century Foxwalt Disney PicturesWarner Bros. Entertainment.

- price for Blu-ray products.

Yandex will help you in the current price difference.

- What Blu-ray disc formats are planned to release?

Based on the needs of CD and DVD in various formats, Blu-ray plans a wide range of formats, including ROM / R / RW. These formats will be a specific part of Blu-ray: BD-ROM - a read-only format, this format will disseminate high-resolution films, games, software, etc.BD-R - format that is designed to record on empty Video disc video in high resolution and any other data.BD-RE (RW) is a format that can be erasing data on disk and records new. Also it is planned to release a BD \ DVD compatible format that can make DVDs and Blu-ray discs could be played on Blu-ray players and DVD players.

- How much data can be written on Blu-ray?

Single-layer discs can store 25 GB of data. Dvuchlaminy disks store 50 GB of data. For more confidence that Blu-ray has a very flexible structure of the layer, which can lead to the greatest data storage density, in the future it is planned to add layers to release multi-layer discs. from 100 to 200 GB (25 GB per layer).

- How many video can be fit on Blu-ray?

On a two-layer Blu-ray disk, you can place about 9 hours of high resolution video and about 23 hours in the usual quality of DVD5.

- How quickly can you read / write information on Blu-ray?

Given the Blu-Ray specification, the speed of 1x has a bandwidth in 36MBPS. Since the films on the BD-ROM require no less than 54Mbps, the minimum speed will be considered 2x (72Mbps). Since Blu-ray has a huge potential for high speeds, respectively, to a greater numerical aperture (dispersion) adapted to Blu-ray. Consequently, a large numeric aperture leads to the fact that the Blu-ray disk requires less power when recording and smaller disk promotion in the drive than you require this DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the same data transfer rate. If earlier the recording of media files was limited to the recording speed, now on the contrary - the limiting factor for Blu-ray is the performance of your computer. That is why BDA already has plans to increase speed up to 8x (288Mbps) and more in the future.

- What video codecs support Blu-ray?

MPEG-2 - more suitable for high-resolution video, is also used to play DVD and HDTV records. MPEG-4 AVC - part of the MPEG-4 standard, also known as H.264 (low- and high-profile) SMPTE VC-1 - standard based on Windows Media Video (WMV) technology

Films in Blu-ray format does not exist, because This type of disk on which there is a set of data encoded in a certain way.

Analogy as with DVD video is usually MPEG-2 + AC3 collected into a special format for playing on DVD players. In this way, it is not correct to say that the film in Blue-Rey format "A" film on Disk Blue Ray ".

- What audio codecs support Blu-ray?

Linear PCM (LPCM) - up to eight-channel uncompressed audio. (Mandatory) Dolby Digital (DD) is used by DVD, five-channel sound with the effect of presence (mandatory) Dolby Digital Plus (DD +) distribution Dolby Digital, seven-digital sound with presence effect. (Optional) Dolby Truehd - Audio without loss of quality up to 8 channels .. (optional) DTS Digital Surround - DVD is used, a five-channel sound with the effect of presence. (Mandatory) DTS-HD High Resolution Audio - extension of DTS, seven-digital sound with the effect of presence. (Optional) DTS-HD Master Audio - Audio without loss of quality up to 8 channels. (optional) Take a note that Blu-ray players will have the support of the above audio and video codecs, but everything will depend on the solution of film studios - how to use from these three codecs.

- Do you need boxes for Blu-ray?

No, the development of a new solid coating technology can help forget about the need of boxes for disks. A new coating makes the surface of the disc is more stable and protected from scratches and attaching fingers compared to DVD. The new error correction system makes Blu-ray more durable and reliable than the usual disposable DVD.

- Do I need to connect to the Internet for Blu-ray?

No, you will not need to connect to the Internet for the usual playing of films on Blu-ray. The Internet may only be needed if you want to add some options, downloading new additions, download movie trailers, etc. Also, the Internet may be required for authorized copying of Blu-ray films on PC.

- Does an analog signal transducer need for Blu-ray?

No, Blu-ray players do not require an analog signal converter if the video does not contain the Image Constraint Token (ICT) function. This feature is not part of Blu-ray, but is part of the AACs of the copy protection system, which is also present in HD DVD.Chinostradi will choose yourself - include this feature in the release or not. As long as the Sony, Disney, Fox, Paramount, Mgm and Universal will not use ICT. This applies to other studios - they will most likely use this option in their releases. If so, then on boxes with movies there will be a designation - whether this copy is protected or not.

- Is the data backup support with Blu-ray?

Yes, the data backup is a Blu-ray component. This function will be available to the holders of the disks to make legal copies from them and optionally distribute within the borders of the home network.

Differences Blu-ray from DVD (Table).

Blu-ray.

DVD

Capacity

25 GB SL.

4.7 GB SL.

50 GB DL

8.5 GB DL

Laser wavelength

405НМ.

650НМ.

Numerical apertura

0.85

0.60

Diameter disk

120mm

120mm

Disc thickness

1 2mm.

1.2mm.

Protective layer

0.1mm.

0.6mm.

Solid coating

there is

No

Data transfer rate:

Normal data

36 MBPS 1x.

11.08 MBPS 1x.

Audio and video

54 MBPS L.5X.

10.08 Mbps <1x

Video resolution

1920 × 1080 (1080r)

720 × 480/720 × 576 (480i / 576i)

Bitrate video

40.0 Mbps.

9.8 Mbps.

Video codecs

MPEG-2 MPEG-4AVC SMPTE VC-1

MPEG-2

Audio codec

Linear PCM.

Linear PCM.

Differences Blu Ray from HD-DVD (Table).

Blu-ray.

HD-DVD.

Capacity

25g6 SL.

15g6 SL.

50 GB DL

30 GB DL

Laser wavelength

405НМ.

405НМ.

Numerical apertura

0.85

0.65

Diameter disk

120mm

120mm.

Disc thickness

1.2mm.

1.2mm

Protective layer

0.1mm.

0.6mm.

Solid coating

there is

No

Data transfer rate:

Normal data

36 MBPS 1x.

36.55 MBPS 1x.

Audio and video

54 MBPS 1.5x

36.55 Mbps <1x

Video resolution

1920 × 1080 (1080r)

1920 × 1080 (1080p)

Bitrate video

40.0 Mbps.

28.0 MBPS.

Video codecs

MPEG-2

MPEG-2

MPEG-4AVC.

MPEG-4 AVC

SMPTEVC-1.

SMPTE VC-1

Audio codec

Linear PCM.

Linear PCM.

Dolby Digital.

Dolby Digital.

Dolby Digital Plus.

Dolby Digital Plus.

Dolby Truehd.

Dolby Truehd.

DTS Digital Surround

DTS Digital Surround

DTS-HD.

DTS-HD.

Detailed description in English.

File in PDF format can be downloaded here >>>

Ultra HD Blu-ray: All you need to know

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4K Ultra HD Blu-ray took time to "promotion", but today almost all new films come out in this format.

4k-televisions appeared back in 2012, but only in 2016 we saw the first models of 4K-Blu-Ray players from Samsung and Panasonic, as well as a constantly growing list of 4K-Blu-Ray disks. Today, the market has many 4K players, films in this format can be bought in the nearest supermarket and in online stores, and prices on both categories day from the day are reduced.

What is the format of Ultra HD Blu-ray, how to get acquainted with him closer and how much will it cost you? Now let's tell about everything.

A little about the specification Ultra HD Blu-ray

The preliminary specification of 4K discs was presented at the CES 2015 exhibition, after which the Blu-Ray disk manufacturers association adopted the Ultra HD Blu-ray official specification, as well as the name of the format and logo.

The new format supports the resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels, a higher frame rate (up to 60 frames per second) and an extended dynamic range (HDR). The HDR material carriers are currently available in three main formats: HDR10, HDR10 + and Dolby Vision HDR.

Most disks with a 4K resolution are encoded according to the HDR10 standard. Dolby Vision and HDR10 + formats support patented dynamic metadata technology, which is not HDR10; It performs frame adaptation of the image and theoretically provides the highest quality of each scene. On the other hand, HDR10 + from Dolby Vision is distinguished by the lack of license costs - manufacturers of television and studios creating content pay Dolby for using Dolby Vision and practically do not control the development and implementation of technology.

At first, in the HDR10 + format, only the content of the AMAZON PRIME VIDEO service was published, but in recent times there are still 4K disks in HDR10 +.

4k-Blu-ray disks are encoded using high-efficiency video encoding standard (HIGH Efficiency Video Coding, HEVC), also known as H.265, with a 10-bit color depth and full coating of the color space Rec.2020.

The wheels themselves are available in three versions: 50 gigabytes that support 82 Mbps data transfer rate, 66 gigabytes with a speed of 108 Mbps and 100 gigabytes with 128 Mbps.

How about Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray audio tracks?

The UHD Blu-ray specification also includes soundtracks recorded in submersible sound formats based on objects of objects such as Dolby ATMOS and DTS: X. In some ordinary Blu-ray disks, these technologies also apply; They are not a unique feature of UHD Blu-ray, but on the carriers of this format, the sound tracks of the new generation are more often found.

At the moment, on most 4K discs, the sound is recorded in Dolby ATMOS format, but there are also options with DTS: X. It is worth noting that on the same you will not find soundtracks in ATMOS and DTS: X - either, or other.

What else does ultra HD Blu-ray format offer?

4K discs support the optional function of a digital bridge, which allows you to copy the content of Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray disks to external hard drives, as well as portable devices such as smartphones and tablets.

The specification also guarantees the playback of Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray players of ordinary "old" Blu-Ray disks. Unfortunately, it does not include 3D - but, given the refusal of most TV manufacturers from supporting this format in recent years, this can be understood.

What are the Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray-Ray players on sale?

Modern UHD-Blu-ray-players can be divided into two categories: Models price up to 40 thousand rubles. (available) and over 60 thousand rubles. (High End).

Panasonic DP-UB9000 and Pioneer UDP-LX500 - very expensive devices that provide excellent image quality and support for Hi-Res-audio, expanding the possibilities of fans of homemade film viewers and audiophiles.

For those who are not ready to spend similar amounts, there are more affordable models offering excellent quality for an acceptable price. Among them, we especially our soul Sony UBP-X700 and Panasonic DP-UB820EB.

Panasonic and LG have other budget models. And Samsung in February 2019 struck everyone, stating full coagulation of Blu-Ray players.

In the gaming console segment there are Microsoft Xbox ONE S, equipped with UHD Blu-Ray-drive. This is the first device of this type with the ability to play 4K-Blu-Ray disks. Keep in mind that it is inferior to specialized players.

Xbox One x is also equipped with a UHD-Blu-Ray-Ray-Ray drive with built-in 4K, HDR and Dolby ATMOS. This is a more expensive model with a more powerful 4K game processor; It is also not fully comparable to component players, but, in general, 4K-HDRs look at it very well.

Xbox Series X, the release of which is scheduled for the end of 2020, will also play 4K-Blu-ray discs.

How about PS4 Pro and PS5? No matter how surprisingly, Sony has left the first model without a corresponding drive, focusing on streaming in 4K, but confirmed that emerging soon PS5 (scheduled for about the same time as Xbox Series X) will be able to play discs.

What Ultra-HD-Blu-ray disks are on sale?

The disks of this format are available worldwide today; You can find films of film studios like 20th Century Fox, Sony Pictures and Warner Bros.

In 2017, Disney joined them, the first names of which were "Guardians of the Galaxy. Part 2 "and" Tor: Ragnaret ", released a year later.

Ultra-HD-Blu-ray disks are widely represented on Amazon, HMV and Zavvi at a price of about £ 20.

Can Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray players play ordinary Blu-ray discs?

Yes, Ultra HD Blu-ray players provide full reverse compatibility with conventional Blu-ray discs. But Ultra HD Blu-ray format media is not played on old players, and it is impossible to modify them, so that you will have to purchase a new 4k-blu-ray player to be purchased.

As for regional restrictions, the 4K-Blu-Ray disks are only one regional code - "the whole world", so you can not worry, moving to another country: you can watch them on any 4k player, anywhere.

However, your new UHD-Blu-Ray player will strictly comply with regional restrictions when playing DVD and standard Blu-ray.

Most 4k-Blu-ray discs are available complied with the standard Blu-Ray version of the same film; Those of them that came to our test laboratories also did not have regional protection.

For complete confidence, locate the "ABC" logo on the cover, read the lettering with small fonts or look for information on the network - especially if you are going to import discs from other countries.

The presence of regional protection from the Blu-Ray disk largely depends on the studio that owns the rights to hire and distribute a particular film. We managed to note that the largest film studios (20th Century Fox, Sony and Warner Bros) produce Blu-ray with a zero region, while small studios regional restrictions are not uncommon.

Which TV is needed to view ultra-HD-Blu-ray?

Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray player is able to work with almost any TV; But, of course, the full 4K permission you will receive only on the screen, compatible with 4K Ultra HD. In other cases, the player will decrease the signal parameters to those supporting the TV.

Any 4K TV reproduces an image with a 4K resolution, but only models with the most modern characteristics will fully appreciate the advantages of Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray disks, including HDR standard, which is increasingly seen as one of the key factors for obtaining maximum image quality. .

Most, if not all, 4K TVs today support the HDR10 specification. Support Dolby Vision and HDR10 + depends on the manufacturer. LG and Sony are the main propagandists of Dolby Vision, Samsung and Panasonic promote HDR10 +. At the same time, the 4K line of Panasonic TVs and Philips are compatible with both formats.

4K and HDR (or Dolby Vision) technology are not always associated with each other, but when choosing a new TV, it is better to prefer a model that supports both - in this case, you can count on a higher image quality.

In addition, make sure that the Ultra HD Premium logo on the machine body; He suggests that the model meets certain 4K HDR standards, including support for basic HDR10 technology. However, compatibility with Dolby Vision HDR is not guaranteed.

Do you have to buy a new AV receiver to play Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray disks?

Yes and no. If the AV receiver responds in your system for switching the HDMI inputs and it is capable of transmitting audio / video signal via HDMI on the system scale, then with 4K-Blu-ray disks it does not work, unless the receiver is 4K-compatible.

Fortunately, today on the market almost all AV receivers 4K-compatible, including the Award What Hi-Fi Award? Models DENON AVR-X3600H and SONY STR-DN1080. If the technical characteristics occurs mention of HDCP 2.2 and HDMI 2.0a (or HDMI 2.1), it clearly indicates 4K support.

If your AV receiver is not 4K-compatible, you will have to use two HDMI cables: one to transfer the video signal from the Ultra-HD-Blu-Ray player to the TV to get an image with a 4K resolution, the second to send an audio signal to the receiver. Therefore, some 4K-Blu-ray players are equipped with two HDMI outputs.

Is it worth Ultra HD Blu-ray all efforts?

We are absolutely sure that it is worth. This format is impressive by the striking image detail, and the hardware improvements and the development of HDR technology are withdrawn its quality to a new level.

Ron Martin, Vice-President of the Panasonic Hollywood Lab laboratory and key member of the Ultra HD Blu-ray development process, said What Hi-Fi magazine?, That 4k-disks are superior to the quality of 3K quality: "Physical disks - the only reliable and reproducible method of obtaining content . Streaming has not only certain advantages, but also many flaws. "

We compared images obtained from broadcasts in 4K, with 4K-Blu-Ray disks and standard Full-HD-Blu-Ray disks - and 4K Blu-ray wins in all articles.

And, apparently, 4K format prefer not only we. Sales of Ultra-HD-compatible equipment grow, and most buyers of new TVs are looking for models with 4K support.

Format 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray did not immediately gain popularity, but quickly became a new quality standard for home theaters.

Whole technique was tested in special rooms "What Hi-Fi?" Https://www.whathifi.com/news/about-us

Prepared according to the materials of the portal "What Hi-Fi?", May 2020

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