The largest animals on Earth are whales. These mammals can reach 35 meters long and weigh more than 150 tons. Such dimensions allow them to easily conquer large depths and the harsh oceans. However, it arises quite a reasonable question: how are China fall? Indeed, with such proportions of the body, partners should be difficult to find a convenient position for Socia, especially considering that the whole process occurs in the endless waters of the ocean.
Paul ripening and periods of mating
Most cetaceans reaches puberty for 3-6 years of their life. True, they still do not acquire their true magnitude. Therefore, it often happens that young males remain without female attention during the marriage games. They can only hope that at the end of all the preludes, one or two untouched females will remain in the district. But the most popular is the male age from 12 to 25 years. According to the standards of cetaceans, this is the most reproductive age.
The period of the marriage games varies depending on the habitat and species of cetaceans. For example, the pairing of blue whales occurs in the fall or in winter, but the humpback whales of the southern hemisphere prefer to engage in the "love" exclusively at the height of the warm season. At the same time, males are always ready for mating, regardless of the time of year, and only ovulation in females occurs according to the calendar cycle.
Whale mating ritual
The ritual of mating is similar for all cetaceans. The individuals ready for reproduction are collected in one place. The main role in these games is performed by males. They are trying to attract the attention of the females they like. Quite often it happens that there are several cavaliers in one lady. In this case, it either chooses the most attractive, or falls with them in turn. It should be noted that males do not show aggression to competitors, on the contrary, they are trying to help each other in the process of seduction.
The whale pairing itself occurs at the surface. At the same time, sexual intercourse is possible only in position when both partners are turned to each other belly. It is the process of adjustment that takes the greatest amount of time. As for the sexual act itself, it occurs pretty quickly, as the two giants can not sail for a long time in this position.
Whales are mammals that live under water. An animal has gigantic sizes and is considered the largest among all beings living on Earth. It is of great interest for scientists, and the underwater inhabitants are trying to bypass it. Whale has many features that are carefully studied by a person.
It is believed that the ancestors of whales are Mesonihi - mannocardinary mammals, externally similar to wolves and those who live about 60 million years ago. The basis of their diet was fish, so they began to lead a semi-water lifestyle.
Gradually, the Mesonichi began to evolve: the front paws turned into fins, the hair cover disappeared, the body began to acquire a rounded form. And about 50 million years ago, whales occurred from them, which were exclusively a water lifestyle.
Interesting fact : Studies have shown that whales are relatives of hippos and have common ancestors.
Whales - warm-blooded animals, the internal temperature of which does not depend on external factors and always keeps at one level. This effect is achieved due to the thick layer of fat. It does not allow heat to go out, holding it inside. Due to this, the temperature of whales is in the range from 35 to 40 degrees Celsius.
A mammal breathes thanks to the light, there is no gowns. And for one inhalation, whale is able to absorb a large amount of air, which is enough for 40 minutes under water.
In an animal, an elongated body resembling a drop. This allows you to meet less resistance when moving under water. Front head has a surrendent shape, nostrils are located on its top.
Interesting fact : Whale eyes have a diameter from 11 to 16 cm and weigh in a kilogram area.
Most species in the mouth are solid plates, which are low-disintended fragments of teeth. They are also called "whale mustes." With their help, the animal filters food from water falling inside. Also in nature, there are species in which the teeth are developed and have a cone-shaped form.
The number of verteons in China depends on the species and varies in the range from 41 to 98. They have a spongy structure, because of which the animal can easily maneuver during movement.
The front of the body is noticeably wider than the tail. On the sides are the flippers in which fins turned into in the process of evolution. Thanks to them, whales turn and brake.
An animal has weak eyesight, because of what it does not see anything around. The smell and taste receptors are also poorly developed. But whales have a good hearing, allowing you to catch the sounds with a frequency above 150 Hz. They communicate with each other with the help of the echolocation body, sending and receiving ultrasonic signals.
The mammal has large dimensions and mass. The smallest is a dwarf whale. In the length of the individual grows up to 6 m, and their mass is in the range from 3 to 4 tons. The largest blue whales are considered. The dimensions of the representatives of this species reach up to 34 m, and their weight is equal to 150-155 tons.
What you eat whales
While receiving food, KIT opens the mouth and pulls inside the large amount of water. Plankton, squid, small fish and crustaceans fall into the mouth cavity. They constitute the basic diet of the mammal. Whales are developing speeds up to 14 km / h, and many marine inhabitants do not have time to float when they once again fill the mouth with water. An animal eats food in large quantities, and per day, representatives of some species absorb up to 3 tons of food.
There are cetacean, whose diet is much wider. For example, Cyats are also powered by dolphins, penguins and seals.
How to drink whales
Whales live only in salted water, but they are not capable of drinking it, because Their kidneys will not cope with such a load. Also, they have no gills, with which other fish are partially degraded with liquid. Because of these factors, whales in principle never drink, but they found another way to replenish the amount of water in the body.
The fact is that fresh liquid they get from food. Plankton and squid, which are the main part of the diet, almost 90% consist of water. Therefore, by going to them, the mammal is successfully fighting with thirst.
Interesting fact : Whales can oxidize fats in their body and get fresh water from them.
Habitat - where whales live
Whales live in the territory of all the oceans of the Earth. They are knocked in herd, and the number of individuals in the same group may vary from a couple of dozens to several thousand. If the mammal lives in cold waters, then it migrates to warmer territories to the production of offspring, and then returns back.
Features of character and lifestyle
Whales lead herd lifestyle, live in territories where enough foods. By diet, among them allocate:
- sprop - feed on a decomposing organoic;
- Mythhyophagus - eat fish;
- Teutophagov - mollusks dominate in their diet;
- planktonophages - they eat mostly plankton.
Most of the species dwell on the surface and do not fall at great depths. If mammals live in cold waters, then periodically they can overcome impressive distances and migrate to other territories.
Interesting fact : Every year, gray whales during migration float 12 thousand km, move from the coast of California to the Bering Sea.
Reproduction and offspring
Whale breeding in warm waters. Because of this, the animal for the birth of a young in winter floats in more favorable places where the ambient temperature is higher.
Pregnancy for whales lasts from 9 to 16 months. Young newborn is quickly mastered in space and can almost immediately swim. Once in an aquatic environment, they can already maneuver, float to the surface and follow the mother. The first months of the offspring feeds on the milk females. It is thick and several times more nutritious than a cow.
Mother takes care of young and does not sail from them over long distances. If one of them is in danger, it immediately begins to defend him.
How many live
The life expectancy of China depends on its species. Citokat is in the range from 25 to 29 years. Beluha under favorable conditions can live up to 50 years. Casalotes and Blue Kit are considered real long-livers. Their life expectancy is 70 and 85 years, respectively.
However, most whales do not live up to 15 years, because Fight with a lot of difficulties in the natural environment. Among them: lack of food, disease exposure, ingress of parasites, etc.
How to sleep whales
Whales are not able to breathe in automatic mode. To make another portion of oxygen into the body, the mammal should be climbed to the surface and consciously exhale through the breath, then breathe air again. And since whales should do it regularly, how do they manage to sleep?
The fact is that the animal never falls asleep completely. The mammal is able to fall into a state of half the form, during which one hemisphere of the brain continues to work, and the other rests. Then they change places.
Interesting fact : Cachelot is able to fall asleep with both hemispheres immediately, but only 15 minutes, after which rises to the surface behind the new portion of oxygen.
Types of whale
Whales are divided into two types: toothless, who have whale mustache, and snatched. In total, more than 80 species are located in the family, from which several main one can be distinguished.
The species received its name due to the shape of a spinal fin resembling hump. The body of individuals is shortened, on the head are arranged. Kita color varies from gray to dark green, belly in most cases white. Lives in all oceans, except Antarctic and the Arctic. It consumes only fish.
The only appearance that makes food from the bottom of the ocean. Thanks to the thigh on the belly, the mammal rolls the silt and eats the organisms in it. The main part of the diet makes the snails, mollusks, worms and crustaceans. The color of the body is dark brown or gray. Gray whales live in the Bering, Okhotsk and Chukchi seas.
The color of individuals is dark blue or gray, the belly light. It lives solely in cold waters, feeds on plankton. Per day can eat up to 2 tons of food.
Interesting fact : One of the individuals of this species lived 211 years in a natural environment. However, the average duration of Greenland whales is 40 years.
It feeds mainly crustaceans. The head of Finval is painted in two colors: the lower part in the white, the top - in the dark brown. One of the few species that live in Antarctica and the Arctic. But in winter they are still floating in warmer water.
Lives in the reservoirs of New Zealand and Australia. The color of individuals varies from gray to black, light spots can also be on the body. It feeds mainly by Plankton. During displacement, moves head to the right and left, which is saved on the wave-like trajectory.
As whales breathe
Breathing whales using the lungs. Since the gills in the animal are absent, it is forced to regularly climb the surface and breathe air using the breaths - holes located in the top of the head. Through it, oxygen penetrates the body and turns out to be in the lungs.
Unlike a person, whales need to make breaths much less often, thanks to which they can be under water for a long time.
What depth the whales dive
Different species are looking for food at certain depths. And often they can be immersed at such distances, to get to which person is almost impossible. Dolphins dive into the smallest depth among cetaceans - they have a maximum dive distance of only 300 m.
For the kitkeeper, the record is a mark in 1087 m. Bealinsky and bottle of whales are capable of falling at 1408 - 1453 m. Cachelotes can swim at a depth of 2035 m.
Interesting fact : Absolute record holder among cetaceans is trivial. It is able to dive to a depth of 2992 m.
How long whales can be under water
Cetaceans are able to be under water different amounts of time, depending on the species. Many mammals, such as dolphins, can delay their breath from 3 to 10 minutes. The tales and blue whales are able to be under water up to 40 minutes. Cachelot may not breathe for one and a half hours. The record holder is triggered: it does not pop up to the surface for 130 minutes.
The amount of time to which the cetacean is capable of retaining respiration depends on the volume of the lungs.
Why whales jump out of water
Mammals are periodically jumping out of the water, accompanying this action with a rumble and plenty of splashes. This behavior manner is most often manifested in humpback whales.
Australian scientists conducted an experiment during which various mammalian groups were observed. It turned out that whales jumped out of the water if there are other flocks within a radius of up to 4 km. This action is also performed when combining groups or accession to them new individuals. It turns out that whale jumps over water for communication with relatives, since they capture vibrations from his blow to the surface.
The main natural enemies of whales can be considered parasites that are sources of many diseases. Most of all mammals suffer from trematodes and whales.
Also, not particularly large species are regularly entering confrontation with Kosyats, which attack them for the thickening of hunger.
Population and status of the form
Currently, the population of many types of whales is reduced. This is due to the pollution of the oceans. Also right up to the second half of the 20th century, people led an active hunting for mammals in order to mining fat. On the territory of Russia in the Red Book, 15 types of whales are listed in the Red Book, including Kozatka, Narval, Sea Pig, Apultin, Dolphins, etc.
Interesting fact : Hunting whales around the world was banned on February 19, 1986. Since then, mammals are considered illegal. Also February 19 recognized "World Whale Day".
The status "extinct species" have giant dolphins, the number of which is gradually decreasing. Also on the verge of extinction are gray whales. There are only several hundreds of individuals in the world, of which only twenty - adult females capable of producing offspring.
Whales and man
People have been hunted for a long time to whales, because of which now population of many species is small. From fat and mammal sallas, people produced soap and margarine. And the bones went to the manufacture of jewelry. Meat was used to prepare various dishes. In the modern world, whale hunt is prohibited, and people try to maintain populations of endangered species.
What is the difference between whales from couching?
Cachelotes belong to the family of cetaceans, but have certain differences compared to other types:
- Cachelot head is 30% of the total body length, and other whales - 15-20%;
- Nostrils are located in front, not at the top;
- In the mouth of Cachelot there are cone-shaped teeth, no whale mustache;
- The dozen fin is not a single whole, but the sequence of the ridge; Mammal can dive to a depth of 3 km.
Also coushlots are slow animals. The maximum speed of movement is 35 km / h, and most of the other types are able to accelerate up to 50 km / h.
What is the whales differ from the killer?
Kotakka is one of the types of cetaceans, but has certain features against the background of other representatives of the family:
- The spinal fin at the mammal high, its length can reach the meter;
- Kosyka are predators and prefer to hunt fish;
- An animal can accelerate to 55 km / h, which makes it one of the fastest cetaceans;
- In the process of life, the tail part of Kosyokka is growing continuously, and the head is gradually shortening.
Also, the animal shows a great care for other members of the pack. Kosykoki never thrown sick and old individuals and try to help them in every way.
Interesting video about whales
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Blue Whale exceeds its size of all other fauna representatives on our planet. If you look around the history of the Earth for the last 90 million years, during this period another animal did not appear, which could take his place. Therefore, blue whales by right is the status of the most unique creature.
It is a pleasure to look at this, his incredible sizes are forced to admire and admire them. Recordsmen among whales can have a length of up to 33 meters . The weight of this giant can reach up to 190 tons. However, in the ocean's expanses, such giants are rare. Where more often can be found whales of 29 meters long and weighing 130-140 tons. Usually such sizes have females. The males are a little inferior to them. They have a length of about 24-25 meters.
There is a blue whale in the northern and southern hemisphere. The inhabitants of the southern part of the ocean waters of the planet are superior to the size of the northern fellow.
- In the summer they go to the Water Antarctic , Conducting it on the expanses of the Southern Ocean. In winter, their habitat is shifted in the northern direction, they are mostly attracted by Madagascar, Peru and Australia's latitude.
- Meet them in waters near the equator is impossible Because they never live in warm waters. Maritime expanses are more familiar to them near the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands. Galapagos Islands can not attract this giant. Therefore, blue whale can rightly be considered the most real inhabitants of the harsh Arctic region.
This handsome man has an elongated and elegant torso. . He has a wide head that is divided into two parts. Armored fins located on the chest, the rear does not have impressive sizes, its height does not exceed 1 meter. He is near the tail. As for the tail, it is wide and decorated with a rough busty edge.
- Skura in blue whale dark gray with a bluish tint . The head and lower jaw differs from the rest of the body with color, which is darker. Beluto decorated with pale yellow. In different parts of the body, light gray spots of various shapes and sizes can be seen. For the jaw you can detect a lot of throat folds - up to 70.
- Big sizes are different , on the side of the upper jaw, which is a burn-chine whale whale. It contains a large number of plates with a width of 50 cm and a height of 130 mm. On each plate you can see the decoration from the fringe, and there may be about a hundred. They fulfill the role of a kind of filter. Thanks to them, whale can push water with the help of the language, while the marine livery falls into it remains inside.
- Language is used by whale as a piston . Its thickness is 3 meters, and the weight is approximately 4 tons. Impressive weight has a heart of blue whale, which is 800 kg. It circulates about 10 tons of blood every second. Do not lag behind the mass and liver, which weighs a whole ton. Other organs also have a gigantic mass. But no wonder this does not have to be surprised, because the blue whale itself is a very large animal.
Reproduction and life expectancy
The female of blue cats bring offspring in winter, at this time they are specially floating in warm water. Small whales have a weight of 3 tons, and their length is 8 meters. Every day they need about 500 liters of milk.With the mother they remain for 7 months
. During this time, they increase in weight to 20 tons, and in length reach 16 meters.
The duration of pregnancy in these magnificent animals is 11 months, but only one young brings only one. Gift females are every two years. The stage of puberty, they come upon reaching the age of 5. Live blue whales 40-45 years old.
The reproduction of blue whales is very interesting, so it is worth stopping in more detail. These animals, participating in the sacrament of the continuation of the kind, Comply with your rules and traditions . And for many centuries, they are unshakable for them. Nature itself suggests in blue whales when it is worth thinking about the future offspring.
This is happening in December: it is at this time of the year they start alone or in small groups to sail south to warm latitudes. With his journey to these distant latitudes, they bring themselves to the moment when one of their main destinations can fulfill. It really looks beautiful - to get acquainted with his half in the south surrounded by warm water and hot sun, which are ideal for creating a romantic setting.
Methods of courtship
Arrive to the place where the next generation of whales will appear, not so difficult. But on, they have to solve a much more complex task: on the site of the males to choose for themselves the female for reproduction, and often happensWhen they have to compete with each other in highly tough rules
Ultimately, only the strongest whale remains, which becomes the winner. From now on, he begins to care for his chosen. This action looks very beautiful and deserves to be called the dance of tenderness and love - animals are swimming for a long time, they are touched by fins to each other, jump together from the water, clap on the water by tails ...
Because whales are of different species, they are used by caressing. Say, humpback whales demonstrate their love, chatting beautiful songs. It is noteworthy that These songs in all males are the same . But for the next year they always speak with new songs. Once under water, in love animals begin to rose vertically up, touching each other with bellyness. This moment is completed with a love ritual.
Warm latitudes are attracted as whale males who are engaged in search of their beloved and pregnant women who have time to make one year old. Generics themselves pass under water: pile appears on the light with open eyes. And woven mother he goes ahead tail . The ability to make the first breath, it receives at the moment when the water surface reaches. He does not go without attention to a minute, who helps him to emerge so that he fill the light air faster.
Love games of whales traditionally lead to the appearance of only one young. In very rare cases, young parents can please twins. It usually has a length equal to the third part of the size of the mother.Repeated childbirth happens no earlier than two years later
. While the pintage will not turn 7 months, he remains with his mother, feeding her milk.
Although it is so wrong to call it, to a greater extent it looks like a high degree of fatty cream - up to 50%. Little pintage requires a lot of milk - the daily rate is 580 liters. With such a nutrition, he gains up to 90 kg of weight in the day. Before he can participate in the creation of offspring, he will have to live for another 8-9 years.
There are representatives of mammals among whales that They remain true to their half until the end of life . This is characteristic, for example, for blue whales. But there are other species, for example, humpback, gray, which attract short resort novels. Moreover, their end occurs much earlier than people happen.
Behavior and nutrition
These mammalian-possesses in water develop the speed of 10-12 km / h. These are their ordinary rhythm in which They hunt behind the plankton, unreasonably falling into their wide open mouth . Speaking of plankton, referring to crustaceans, mainly in blackness. They are very small in size and have a length of no more than 5-6 cm.
- On the day, Xeno Whale requires about 2.5 tons of plankton.
- To get enough feed, it often has to dive to a depth of 10-15 meters, remaining under water for 10 minutes.
It happens that it is so fascinated by the hunt, that he can spend there and more up to 20 minutes. Satisfied, it rises to the surface and makes up to 5-6 jumps. A fountain looks very beautiful, which produces whale. The water column created by them can have a height of up to 10 meters. After that, he dives again under the water and continues to hunt.
If the blue whale notes a danger, it can accelerate to 30 km / h. If necessary, it can dive to a depth of 300 meters. However, they do so very rarely. If athey will notice a threat from the river
, then immediately try to climb the surface of the ocean. Most often, the blue whales live in small groups of three - four individuals. You can meet a large flock in those places where enough feed. However, upon completion of the hunt, these groups are immediately divided. Interesting is a way to communicate with whales. For this, they use low-frequency audio signals. These mammals can lead the conversation, even being at a distance of 500-600 kilometers from each other.
For blue whales in the ocean expanses, only the rusket is a threat. It is attracted to the fleshy and delicious language of this giant. However, if she decides to attack adult huge animals, then her hunting usually ends in failure. Blood-like creatures understand this, so they try to choose young whales as a victim. For this they try Drive a smartly serious animal to depth so that it could not climb to the surface. Gradually, its air reserves are dried, as a result, he soon begins to weaken and can no longer resist. However, even the fighters apply less harm to these mammals than a person. It is thanks to his unreasonable actions, a population of blue whale is now on the verge of extinction.
The blue whales are one of the amazing creatures on our planet, which are primarily known to everyone with their gigantic sizes. Watch out how these giants live, a pleasure. Food for them is plankton, for the hunt for which they are often sent to the depth. But they can not stay under water for a long time, therefore, it is periodically identified, the release of the water pole. This is a very beautiful sight. In blue whales, there are practically no serious enemies in the ocean expanses with the exception of the rusket. However, an adult animal always manage to cope with it due to its size.